## Questions and Answers.

#### Multi choice questions

1. Table is collection of:
1. Rows.
2. Columns.
3. Both.
4. None.

Answer:

C. Both.

2. Range is the:
1. Difference between the largest and the smallest observations.
2. Difference between the smallest and the largest observations.
3. Average of the largest and smallest observations.
4. Ratio of the largest to the smallest observations.

Answer:

A. Difference between the largest and the smallest observations.

3. How many methods are of data presentation?
1. Two.
2. Three.
3. Four.
4. None.

Answer:

B. Three.

4. Who said " a statistical table is a systematic...rows" ?
1. Marshall.
2. Lawitt.
3. Neiswanger.
4. Five.

Answer:

C. Neiswanger

5. Two features are presented by which type of table?
1. Manifold.
2. Two fold
3. Three fold..
4. None.

Answer:

B. Twofold

6. Two fold classification deals with how many features:
1. Two.
2. Three.
3. Five.
4. Four.

Answer:

A. Two

7. Which one is not the method of data presentation?
1. Tables.
2. Diagrams.
3. Graphs.
4. Figures .

Answer:

D. Figures

8. Who said "Tabulation in its broadest sense....columns and rows" ?
1. Neiswager.
2. LR Conner.
3. Marshall.
4. MM Blair.

Answer:

D. MM Blair.

9. Variables are of how many types:
1. Two.
2. Three.
3. Five .
4. None of the above .

Answer:

A. Two.

10. The class mid point is equal to :
1. The average of of the upper class limit and lower class limit.
2. The product of upper class limit and lower class limit.
3. The ratio of the upper class limit and lower class limit.
4. None of these .

Answer:

A. The average of of the upper class limit and lower class limit.

11. The frequency distribution of two variable is known as:
1. Univariate distribution.
2. Bivariate distribution.
3. Multivariate distribution.
4. None of the above.

Answer :

B. Bivariate distribution..

12. Population refers to...
1. Frequency.
2. Cumulative frequency .
3. Both of the above.
4. None of the above.

Answer:

C. Both of the above.

13. Give examples for quantitative and qualitative classification.
14. Answer :

1. Qualitative classification: Nationality, Literacy, Religion, Gender, Marital status.
2. Quantitative classification: Characteristics like height, weight, age, income, marks of students.

15. Prepare a frequency distribution from the given data. (Exclusive method).
16. Classes can be arranged in inclusive and exclusive manner. Point out any two features which help us to distinguish them.
17. Answer :

EXclusive method: in this method the classes are found in such a way that the upper limit of one class equals the lower limit of next class. In this way, the continuity of data is maintained. This method is most suitable in case of data of a continuous variable. In this method, the upper class limit is excluded and lower and lower class limit is included in the interval.

Inclusive method : This method does not exclude the upper class limit in a class interval. Thus, both class limits are parts of the class interval.

18. Details given below shows the hieght of 25 participants in a selection test. The minimum required height for the post is 170 cms. Prepare a frequency distribution table by exclusive method by taking class interval of 5. Find out the number of participants selected.
19. While preparing a frequency distribution from the raw data, name the questions we have to address. Briefly explain.
20. Answer :

1. Find the range of data.
2. Decide the approximate number of classes.
3. Determine the approximate class interval size.
4. Decide the starting point.
5. Determine the remaining class limits.
6. Distribute the data into respective classes.

21. The blood groups of 35 students of class XI are recorded as follows:
22. What is variable? Distinguish between a discrete and a continuous variable.
23. Answer :

24. Who is enumerator?.
25. Answer :

One who does actual collection of data.

26. What are the types of questionnaire method?.
27. Answer :

Two types,

1. Questionnaire through enumerator.
2. Questionnaire through mail.

28. How many sources are there of secondary data?.
29. Answer :

1. Published.
2. Unpublished.

30. How many types of the nature of questions?.
31. Answer :

Four types.

32. Name any two published sources of data.
33. Answer :

1. Reports of IMF.
2. Reports of World Bank.

34. Name any unpublished sources of data.
35. Answer :

1. Private institutions.
2. Reports of individual researchers.

36. What are the types of errors in the collection of data?.
37. Answer :

There are five types of errors in the collection of data.

38. What will be the type of data collected by a TV reporter through interview?.
39. Answer :

Direct personal investigation and primary data.

40. Data related with population and national income will be of which type?.
41. Answer :

Secondary data.

42. Define internal source of data.
43. Answer :

Internal source of data. When data is collected by itself i.e. when we get data from the record of reports of variouis institutes, records then this source of data is called as internal source of data. For example report published by any bank regarding its deposits and loan wilI be called as internal source of data for that particular bank.

44. Define external source of data.
45. Answer :

When data is collected by any organization from other organization or source then the source of data is called as external source. Such as any economist in evaluating any economic problem uses the data published by the India government, then the source of data used by the economist would be called as external source of data..

46. What is primary data?.
47. Answer :

Primary data is the type of data which is collected by the investigator from its origin or generated by the investigator himself. These data are collected by investigator for the first time. These data are called as original data because they are collected for the very first time. In the words Of Wessel, "Data originally collected in the process of the investigation are known as primary data." For example data collected for knowing the economic condition of students of a particular school will be called as primary data because these data will be collected for the very first time.

48. What is secondary data?.
49. Answer :

These are the data which have already been collected and new investigator only uses this data for his investigation purpose. If said in the word of Wessel, "Data collected by other person is called as secondary data."

50. Name all the methods for collecting primary data.
51. Answer :

There are six methods for collecting primary data. They are,

1. Direct personal interview.
2. Indirect oral investigation.
3. Information from correspondents.
4. Telephonic interview.
5. Mailed questionnaire method.
6. Schedules sent through enumerators.

52. Differentiate between direct personal and indirect oral investigation.
53. Answer :

54. What is questionnaire method?.
55. Answer :

In this method neither investigator goes to the respondents directly, indirectly nor sends the correspondents. But in this method, keeping in mind the objective of the investigation, investigator prepares a sequence of question and sends them to respondent.

56. What is the difference between enumerative and mail questionnaire method?.
57. Answer :

In enumerative method the questionnaire is sent through the enumerators to the respondents and enumerator collects the data whereas in mail questionnaire the questionnaire is sent to the respondents through the mail.

58. Differentiate schedule and questionnaire.
59. Answer :

Series wise questions prepared with reference to the investigation is called as questionnaire whereas questionnaire filled by enumerator himself by asking the respondents is called as schedule.

60. What are the features of good questionnaire ?
61. Answer :

Accuracy and originality of data collected through questionnaire depend upon the questionnaire. The more the questionnaire will be accurate, good, and best the result will be that much pure, accurate and original. A good questionnaire collect good data should have following characteristics in it:

1. First of all objective of investigation and instruction for filling should be clearly mentioned.
2. Number and nature of question should be minimum and from the field of investigation only.
3. All questions should be in a proper order.
4. Question should not be of irritating nature, wrong type, and hurting the feeling of special categories.
5. Language of the questions should be easy, clear and direct so that every one could understand it.
6. Questions should be such that respondents could reply them sitting at his home itself, it should not involve further accounting.
7. Questions should be of one meaning so that biasing could be avoided.
8. Question should be such that they could be tested for truth after that.
9. Before finalizing the questionnaire see it yourself that can everyone answer these questions or not.
10. At the end of the questionnaire there should be a request and confirmation that the information provided by them will be kept secret and will be used only for those purpose of research or investigation not for any legal action.

If all these characteristics are found in a questionnaire then that questionnaire will be the ideal questionnaire.

62. Differentiate between the various types of data according to their sources.
63. Answer :

Those data which is obtained from the internal source are those which are its own data and are related to that source only, whereas data obtained from external source are the only data which is used by all the peoples in their investigations. Data collected from external source are of two types, primary and secondary data.

Differences between primary and secondary data:

The only difference between the primary and secondary data is of result, A person which collects data for him those data are primary data and those data are secondary for any other person. In the words of Secrist, "The distinction between primary and secondary data is of the degree. Data which are primary in the hands of one person may be secondary in the hands of other."
64. Write the types of method of data collection of primary type and describe direct personal investigation method.
65. Answer :

It is very important question that from where we get these data. Internal sources data are its own data and whereas far external source data are to be collected, how this data is to be collected, using which technique, this is what we will study in detail here. As you already know data is of two types:

1. Primary
2. Secondary.
Secondary data has already been collected and Primary data are to be collected by the investigator himself. This data is collected according to its objective using certain methods.

Direct personal investigation:-

In this method investigator goes in person to person contact in the area which he wants to execute the investigation and collect the information and data. To collect right data or information through this method the investigator has to be hard working, unbiased, able, and full of patience. For example to know about the living standard of a particular area the investigator has to collect the data by coming directly in contact with the people of that particular area. Then this method would be called as direct personal investigation method.This method cannot be used everywhere. This method is most suitable for those conditions:

1. Where field of investigation is restricted.
2. Where confidentiality data is important.
3. Where data is to be collected directly from the peoples.
4. Data required in original form.
This method could be used only if this is useful, suitable and effective. Main features of this method are :

1. *Data collected through this method are dependable because investigator collects them themselves.
2. Data collected in original.
3. Data collected is homogeneous and uniform as collected by single hand.
4. As data collected directly from the respondents so level of accuracy is high.
5. This method is elastic in nature so changes as per need could be effected by the investigator.
6. Data can be collected to vast nature by this method.
Where there are so much advantages of this method it has got few demerits also these are:

1. This method requires large amount of money, time and hard work.
2. Suitable for limited area of investigation not suitable for large area.
3. As data collected by a person personally so chance of biasing is high.
4. Method can be used only by able, wise, and patience investigator, not by ordinary investigator.
5. Method not suitable for large number of respondents.
66. Discuss the Indirect oral investigation method along with its merits and demerits.
67. Answer :

Some investigations are of such/nature that respondents do not wish to provide the directly such as the investigations for the collection of data regarding the habit of sigarette smoking in the student and alcohol taking habits; students doesn't wish to give any data openly or directly. In these situations we use indirect oral investigation method. In this method we don't contact the respondents directly but collect the data from the person associated with the respondents. For example in case of data regarding cigarette and alcohol we will not directly ask the students but we will ask for the data from the teashop near the college canteen, etc. Success of this method depends upon the calibre, knowledge, daring nature, and behaviour of the person asking for the data. We should also have the knowledge under which circumstance this method is suitable. Indirect oral investigation is suitable under these circumstances:

1. Where direct contact with respondents is not possible.
2. Where field investigation is very vast.
3. Where data to be collected is of typical nature and could be collected only by the experts.
4. Where respondents could not provide information due to unawareness.
This method normally used by the committees either government or private.

Merits of this method are as follows :

1. Method is simple and less time taking.
2. Area of investigation, wide open.
3. Method is less costly.
4. Method is un-biased.
5. By this method we can know the opinion of the experts.
Where there are merits of the method, we also have following demerits of the method.

1. Information can be of biased nature in this method also.
2. Informations could be wrong because information are not in original form.
3. Respondents could behave carelessly because the information being asked is not directly related to them but with another side.